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Return JSON from C# Azure function

In this blog post I’ll build a simple C# Azure function that returns an object as JSON. That’s useful if you want to build a simple “API” or if you just want to return some information in a structured format. Such a function could read data from an on-premise environment and provide this data to a logic app, because it’s much easier to connect an Azure function to on-premise than a logic app.

Create a C# Azure Function

First step is to create a new C# function. I’ll use the HttpTriggerWithParameters-CSharp template and I’ll use the authorization level ‘Anonymous’ (that’s okay for this demo):
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Azure Invoice API – download all invoices

Since end of April 2017, there is the new Azure Invoice API available. This API allows to download the Azure invoices for a subscription as PDF file. This does currently not work for Enterprise Agreements, but according to the blog post (https://azure.microsoft.com/en-us/blog/azure-billing-reader-role-and-preview-of-invoice-api/) it is planned.
The downloaded PDF is the invoice itself. The API does currently only support to create and download invoice pdfs. It does not support to access specific costs (e.g. per resources), because this is part of the billing API. I already blogged about the billing API here: Use the Azure Billing API and calculate the costs
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Microsoft Cognitive Services – Translation API

If you want to programmatically translate text from one language to another, then the Translation service (translation api) is the right one for you. The Microsoft Translation Service just requires an authentication and then you can easily translate text from one language to another. It sounds simple…and it is simple! In this blog post, I’ll quickly describe how to create the translation service and how to use it with C#, Powershell and Node.js.

Create the translation service in Azure

The translation service is part of the cognitive services and can therefore be found as cognitive service in the Azure portal:

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Microsoft Cognitive Services – Face API

The Face API which is part of the Microsoft Cognitive Services helps to identify and detect faces. It can also be used to find similar faces, to verify if two images contain the same person and you can also train the service to improve the identification of people. In this blog post, I’ll just use the detect service which detects faces and shows the age, gender, emotions and other data of the detected face.

Prerequisites: Create the Face API Service in Azure

As all Microsoft cognitive services, you can also create the face API service in Azure via the portal. It is part of the “Cognitive Services APIs”, so just search for it and create it. Select the Face API as the type of the cognitive service and check the pricing options:

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Microsoft Cognitive Services – Computer Vision

The Computer Vision API which is part of the Microsoft Cognitive Services and helps to analyze images, retrieve information from images or even to modify them a bit. It currently supports the following cases:

  • Analyze an Image: Returns categories and tags (e.g. “mountain”, “outdoor”), detects celebrities on the picture, checks if it contains adult or racy content, gives a description of the image, detects faces (e.g. male, 20 years), analyzes colors and the image type.
  • Get a thumbnail: returns a thumbnail of the image.
  • OCR (optical character recognition): detects text on an image.
  • Analyze videos: does the same as analyze images, but for videos.

In this blog post, I’ll use C# to analyze images, to do an OCR and I’ll create a thumbnail.

Prerequisites: Create the Computer Vision service in Azure

The first step for using the computer vision API is to create the service. It is part of the “Cognitive Services APIs” and can be created in the Azure portal:

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Send Mails with C# in Azure

The following blog post is about sending emails in/via Azure with C#. There are currently two services available that you can easily create in Azure – MailJet and SendGrid. You can also use them without Azure or you can use another service or your own Mail server, but in this post, I’ll focus on the services in Azure and how to use them. If you want to send mails from an Azure function, web job, web app or any other “application” in Azure, then the two services are good and easy to use. Both services, SendGrid and MailJet offer a free plan that allows to send up to 25k e-mails per month. Both of them work fine and are easy to configure, that’s why I’ll describe how to use the services.


Create and configure SendGrid service

The SendGrid service is available in the Azure marketplace, so you can simply add it via the portal. Just search for “SendGrid” and you’ll find the service “SendGrid Email Delivery”. If you create it, then you can also see the pricing:

When the service is provisioned, we have to create an API key that we use to send the mails. Open the SendGrid service in the Azure portal and go to manage:

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Return HTML or file content from C# Azure function

I’m currently implementing different Azure functions and these days I wanted to return a simple HTML document via an Azure function. So I did it at first for a simple (“hello world”) Azure function and used the code later in my real function.

I developed the sample online (in the Azure portal), but you can also use Visual Studio for it. Just add a new “HttpTrigger – C#” function and set the authorization level (I used anonymous – so no key is required):

After that, I changed the code of the function:

using System.Net;
using System.Net.Http.Headers;

public static async Task<HttpResponseMessage> Run(HttpRequestMessage req, TraceWriter log)
    log.Info($"C# HTTP trigger function processed a request. RequestUri={req.RequestUri}");

    string html = @"<html>
<head><title>Hello world!</title></head>
<h1>Hello World!</h1>
<p>from my <strong>Azure Function</strong></p>
    var response = new HttpResponseMessage(HttpStatusCode.OK);
    response.Content = new StringContent(html);
    response.Content.Headers.ContentType = new MediaTypeHeaderValue("text/html");
    return response;

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Azure Functions – Time Trigger (CRON) Cheat Sheet

This is a cheat sheet for CRON expressions that are used in the time triggers for Azure functions. They define how often a trigger/the Azure function should be executed (daily, hourly, every 3 months, …).

The basic format of the CRON expressions in Azure is:
{second} {minute} {hour} {day} {month} {day of the week}
e.g. 0 * * * * * (=every minute)

The following values are allowed for the different placeholders:

Value Allowed Values Description
{second} 0-59; * {second} when the trigger will be fired
{minute} 0-59; * {minute} when the trigger will be fired
{hour} 0-23; * {hour} when the trigger will be fired
{day} 1-31; * {day} when the trigger will be fired
{month} 1-12; * {month} when the trigger will be fired
{day of the week} 0-6; MON-SUN; * {day of the week} when the trigger will be fired

e.g. 3 5 * * * * defines a trigger that runs every time when the clock is at second 3 and minute 5 (e.g. at 09:05:03, 10:05:03, 11:05:03, …).

The trigger executes at UTC timezone. So for Vienna (UTC+1), a trigger at 18:00 (UTC) executes at 19:00 Vienna time (UTC+1).

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Use the Azure Billing API and calculate the costs

The last days, I created a .net library that allows to read data from the Azure Billing REST APIs. You can use it to read data from the usage API, the ratecard API and it also gives you the combination of the data and does a cost calculation. The library is available as NuGet package (https://www.nuget.org/packages/CodeHollow.AzureBillingApi/) and the code is published on GitHub: https://github.com/codehollow/AzureBillingApi.
But before I jump into a short description of the library, I want to write a bit about the Azure Billing APIs:


The Azure billing API allows to get data of your usage and the money that you have to pay for your resources. There are currently two types of the billing API:

The billing API for EA customers already returns the costs – so it’s much simpler. The REST (generic) billing API returns more data. It returns the usage of the resources and the costs per unit per resources – but it does not return the effective costs. If you want to get the costs, then you have to get the usage data and combine it with the ratecard data (the costs per unit per resource). I already blogged about each of those two APIs, but not about how to connect the data of both of them:

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Export Azure Usage data to CSV with C# and Billing API

The first important thing to mention is, that there are two types of the Azure billing API. One is the billing API for EA (enterprise agreement) customers. This API is easier to use, because it returns the costs in a separate field (extendedCosts). If you have an enterprise agreement, I recommend to check the following blog post: http://www.redbaronofazure.com/?p=631.

The other one is the billing API for non EA users (see Azure Billing REST API Reference. This API has two services, the RateCard API which returns costs for your resources (e.g. S1 DocumentDB costs per hour in region West Europe). I already blogged about how to export the RateCard data to CSV. In this post, I’ll focus on the second one which returns the usage data. This service returns the usage of your resources – e.g. “Standard IO – File Write Operation Units (in 10,000s), quantity: 3.182, …”. Unfortunately, the usage API does not return the costs per resource. If you want to know the costs, then you need to combine the RateCard data with the Usage data.

Update February 7, 2017: I built a .net library and published it as NuGet package which you can use to get data from the usage api and the ratecard api. The library also combines the usage and ratecard data and calculates the costs. The code is published on GitHub and I blogged about the usage and the configuration of it:

This blog post is still valid, it shows the how to configure and build an application that uses the Azure Billing Usage REST API.

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